Kodi quintile ndi yabwino kapena yoipa?

Mafunso Ndi Mayankho Abwino - Mwezi wa Sun quintile

Kodi quintile ndi yabwino kapena yoipa?

Zonse zaquintileZinthu zimakhala ndi orb yokwanira ya 1 digiri ndipo zimakhala zolimba kwambiri pakagwiritsa ntchito m'malo molekanitsa.Zovutachoyimiridwa ndi chizindikiro cha Q mu tchati chikuwonetsa madera ena amoyo komwe munthu amayendetsedwa kwambiri. Zimatengedwa ngati chisonyezo chauzimu.

Sabata yatha tidapereka magawo atatu a Max Weber pakukhala pagulu: gulu lazachuma, ulemu, komanso mphamvu. Koma kodi zinthu zitatuzi zimagwirizana bwanji zenizeni zenizeni? Kodi kusakhazikika pagulu kumawoneka bwanji pano ndi pano? Kapena, ndikuganiza ndiyenera kunena kuti stratification ikuchitika ku United States pompano? Kwa onse omwe si Amereka akuwonera, musadandaule - tifika pamakina padziko lonse lapansi pambuyo pake. Koma lero tilingalira za United States ndi momwe kusakhazikika pakati pa anthu kumasewera pano.

Kodi tikutsatira mfundo zomwe Jefferson adalemba mu Declaration of Independence? Kodi anthu onse analengedwa ofanana? Chenjezo la owononga: Sociology sinena zambiri. Ngati mumva anthu akukamba zakusalinganika ku United States, mwina akuyankhula zakusagwirizana kwachuma kapena kusalingana kwachuma makamaka. Kotero tiyeni tiyambire pamenepo.

Choyamba, tigawa U. S. m'magulu 5 ofanana, lirilonse ndi 20% ya anthu kukhala omwe asayansi azikhalidwe amatcha quintiles.

Kuyambira mu 2015, mabanja a U. S. omwe amalandira ndalama zosakwana $ 22,800 pachaka adzakhala ndalama zotsika kwambiri pakugawana ndalama.

Pakatikati pogawa, kapena apakatikati, ndalama zapakhomo zinali pafupifupi $ 56,000 pachaka. Ndi quintile wapamwamba? Banja lililonse limapanga ndalama zoposa $ 117,000 pachaka. Mfundo yosavuta yoti ma quintile awa ali ndi ndalama zosiyana zimatiuza kuti tilibe anthu ofanana.

Kufanana kwathunthu kungatanthauze ndalama zomwezo kwa aliyense. Chifukwa chake pali kusokonekera kwa ndalama mu U. S.

Koma zingati? Mabanja apamwamba kwambiri amapeza pafupifupi 50% ya ndalama zonse za U. S.

Ndipo pafupifupi 20% ya ndalama zonse zimachokera ku 5% yokha. Ndipo quintile wapansi? Nyumba izi zimangopeza 3.4% ya ndalama zonse ku United States.

Izi ndizosiyana kwambiri! Ndipo amakula kwambiri tikamanena zachuma. Zinthu zoyambirira, chuma SI chofanana ndi ndalama. Ndalama ndi ndalama zomwe mumapanga pogwira ntchito kapena zosungitsa, pomwe chuma ndi mtengo wonse wa ndalama ndi zina zomwe muli nazo, monga kugulitsa nyumba ndi masheya ndi ma bond.

Kwa quintile yotsika, chuma chambiri chanyumba sichabwino. Izi ndichifukwa choti zina mwazinthu ndi ngongole. Chifukwa chake ngati muli ndi ngongole zambiri kuposa chuma chenicheni, chuma chanu sichikhala chabwino, chifukwa chake tili ndi ndalama zokwana pafupifupi $ 6,000 zotsika mtengo wapakatikati komanso chuma chapanyumba pafupifupi $ 68,000.

Kodi mukudziwa momwe quintile wapamwamba angawonekere? Eya, ndalama zapamwamba kwambiri zapakhomo zinali pafupifupi kawiri ndalama zapakatikati, ndiye mwina kulingalira kungakhale chiyani? $ 140,000 yamtengo wapatali? Osati zolondola. Mtengo wa anthu omwe ali pamwamba pa quintile ndi maulendo 9 apakati - $ 630,000. Ndipo palibe paliponse pafupi ndi chuma cha 1%.

Malinga ndi US Census Bureau, malire olowera gawo limodzi mwa magawo 1% azogawana ndi $ 2.4 miliyoni. Chuma chimasiyananso ndi gulu la anthu.

Mwachitsanzo, azimayi amakhala ndi chuma chochepa poyerekeza ndi amuna. Okwatirana amadzikundikira chuma chambiri kuposa anthu osakwatirana omwe ali pachibale - chuma chambiri cha banja loyera ndichokwera kakhumi ndi kawiri kuposa cha banja lakuda. Chimodzi mwazinthu zofunika kwambiri kwachuma kwa anthu aku America ndi kukhala kwawo.

Azungu aku America ali ndi mwayi wokhala ndi nyumba kuposa anthu akuda aku America, ndipo madera omwe azungu aku America amakhala olemera - ngakhale mutayang'anira ndalama. Patrick Sharkey, katswiri wazikhalidwe zaku America yemwe amaphunzira madera oyandikana nawo komanso chuma, adapeza kuti mabanja akuda omwe amalandira $ 100,000 pachaka amakhala m'malo amenewa kuti banja loyera lomwe limangopanga $ 30,000 lokha limakhala m'malo amenewa. Ndiye kodi izi zimachokera kuti? Choyamba, chuma chambiri chimadutsa m'mibadwo.

Tiyeni tilowe mu ganizo loti tikambirane zakuchepetsa, zomwe zidachitika kalekale zomwe zidapangitsa kuti zikhale zovuta kuti mabanja aku Africa aku America aphatikize chuma. M'zaka za m'ma 1930, boma linakhazikitsa Federal Housing Agency, ofesi yanyumba ndi chiwongola dzanja, kuti iteteze ku kuwonongedwa komwe kunachitika panthawi ya Kupsinjika Kwakukulu. FHA idayamba kupereka ngongole zanyumba, ndipo popeza nkhongolezi zidathandizidwa ndi boma, zidapangitsa kuti anthu ambiri aku America asamavutike kupeza nyumba.

Ndi zabwino kwambiri! ndizosavuta kwa anthu onse aku America. Mabanki akulu omwe amapanga ngongole amachita chizolowezi chobwezeretsa komwe amalemba mzere wofiira pamapu oyandikira madera omwe anali pachiwopsezo chambiri kuyika mzere wofiira womwe mabanki sanakupatseni Mbiri. Ndipo madera omwe adakhudzidwa ndikuwonjezera malo ndi omwe amakhala ochepa, makamaka mabanja akuda.

Kubwezeretsa kunali koletsedwa mu 1968, koma chifukwa umwini wanyumba ndiye gwero lalikulu la chuma kwa anthu ambiri aku America, kusankhana m'deralo komanso kusalingana pakati pa mafuko ndizotsatira zandalama ngati redlining. Chifukwa cha kuwira koganiza. Chabwino, kotero US siziwoneka chimodzimodzi kutsogolo kwa ndalama.

Ndipo ndalama - makamaka chuma - sizimangokhudza magulu azachuma komanso mitundu ina yamphamvu, kuphatikiza mphamvu zandale. Kafukufuku wa 2014 ndi asayansi andale aku America a Martin Gilens ndi Benjamin Page adasanthula ubale womwe ulipo pakati pa malingaliro andale a omwe ali pamwamba pogawa ndalama ndi malamulo omwe adaperekedwa. Malingaliro a othamanga kutsogolo ali ndi ubale wofunikira, wabwino pamalamulo omwe aperekedwa pomwe malingaliro a anthu omwe ali pakati pogawa ndalama alibe kulumikizana ndi malamulo omwe akuperekedwa.

Koma kumbukirani: kuphatikiza sikukutanthauza kuyambitsa. Phunziroli silimatiuza CHIFUKWA chiyani ndalama zapamwamba zimakhudzana ndi ndale zambiri. Mphamvu za osankhika pamalonda zitha kubwera kuchokera kuzopereka kwa ofuna ndale.

Koma ndalama zapamwamba zimalumikizananso ndi maphunziro apamwamba - ndipo anthu ophunzira kwambiri amakhalanso achikhalidwe. Kuphatikiza pa ndalama ndi chuma, pali zinthu zambiri ku United States zomwe zimakhudza magulu azikhalidwe. Mwachitsanzo pali ntchito.

Ngati ndinu wamkulu, mwina funso loyamba lomwe anthu amakufunsani, 'Mumatani?' Ndi chifukwa chakuti ntchito zomwe timachita - komanso zomwe anthu ena amaganiza za ntchitoyi - ndi gawo lalikulu lachuma chathu. Muyenera kuti muli ndi malingaliro oti ntchito ndiyabwino, ndi ntchito ziti zosangalatsa - ndi ntchito zomwe simugwirako ntchito. National Opinion Research Center, gulu loganiza ku University of Chicago, idachita chidwi ndi malingaliro otere atakhala ' kutchuka kwamaluso '.

Pamwamba pamndandanda? Madokotala ochita opaleshoni, mapurezidenti aku yunivesite, maloya, akatswiri azanyukiliya, akatswiri azakuthambo. Ndi kuchuluka kwapakati pa 5, ntchito monga oyang'anira kugula, oyang'anira maofesi, akatswiri a IT, ofufuza payekha ali. Ndizowona, oyang'anira maofesi onse kunja uko, ndinu ozizira ngati Veronica Mars.

Pamunsi pamndandanda pali ntchito ngati anyamata amabasi, oyang'anira malo oimikapo magalimoto ndi maloya ama telefoni. Mutha kupeza kuti pali zina zomwe zikufanana pantchito iliyonse. Choyamba, ntchito zapamwamba zimalipidwa bwino.

Tili ndi magawo ambiri pano - muli ndi maubwino azachuma komanso zachuma pokhala loya. Busboy? Osati kwambiri. China chomwe mungazindikire ndikuti ntchito zisanu zapamwamba kwambiri zimafunikira digiri yoyamba.

Osangokhala digiri ya kukoleji - anthu pantchito izi nthawi zambiri amakhala ndi maphunziro ena omaliza. Komabe, ntchito kumapeto kwenikweni kwa Prestige sikutanthauza digiri yaku koleji, ndipo ambiri safuna digiri yasekondale. Chifukwa chake mtundu wamaphunziro omwe muli nawo ndikofunikira pamlingo wanu.

Akuluakulu ambiri aku America ali ndi digiri yasekondale - pafupifupi 88% mu 2015. Koma 33% yokha yaku America opitilira 25 ali ndi digiri ya bachelor ndipo ngakhale ochepera - 12% - ali ndi digirii yapamwamba yemwe amapita kukoleji amatengera kwambiri chikhalidwe chawo pachuma. . Kwa ana obadwa mzaka za m'ma 1980, 54% mwa iwo omwe adabadwa m'gawo lapamwamba kwambiri logawa ndalama ali ndi digiri yazaka zinayi yakukoleji.

Kwa iwo obadwira kumapeto kotsika, 9% yokha ndi omwe amachita. Monga kusalemera kwa chuma, mafuko ndi mafuko amaphatikizidwa ndi maphunziro 22% aku Africa American ndi 16% aku Puerto Rico ali ndi digiri yazaka zinayi, poyerekeza ndi 36% ya Azungu aku America osakhala a Puerto Rico ndi 53% aku Asia aku America kudutsa madeti ofotokozera Ndalama, ntchito, ndi maphunziro ku United States kukuwonetsani kusalingana kulipo ku United States. Koma kodi tiyenera kuganiza bwanji za kusalinganika? Ndi zabwino kapena zoipa? Mutha kunena kuti kusalinganika sichinthu choyipa palokha.

Ntchito zina ndizovuta kuposa zina. Madokotala amakhala zaka zambiri akuphunzitsa kuti apulumutse miyoyo. Ndipo ndikuganiza kuti zili bwino kwambiri kuti ochita opaleshoni ya mtima amalandira ndalama zambiri kuposa ine.

Ndipo mwina ndibwino kukhala mgulu lomwe limalimbikitsa kugwira ntchito molimbika komanso maluso ophunzirira omwe amapindulitsa anthu ena. Ili ndiye lingaliro la gulu lotukuka - kapena kusanjikana pakati pa anthu kutengera luso lawo. US ndi gawo lokonda kuchita bwino - chikhalidwe cha anthu sichimawonetsa maluso ndi zoyesayesa zawo.

Koma chikhalidwe chochulukirapo chimayambanso chifukwa cha chinthu china chomwe simungathe kuchilamulira - momwe munabadwira. Ngati mungayambe pansi pa makwerero, mulibe mwayi wokwera pamwamba. Malo omwe mumapezeka mzaka zoyambirira za moyo wanu amakulimbikitsani kuchita bwino mutakula.

Pali kafukufuku wochuluka woti ana obadwira m'mabanja omwe amalandira ndalama zochepa amapita kusukulu kumbuyo kwa anzawo ndipo mipata iyi imangokulira ndi ukalamba; Kusalingana m'badwo umodzi kumabweretsanso m'badwo wotsatira. Ndipo monga tidazindikira pamaphunzirowa, mtundu ndi jenda ndizofanana kwambiri ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu. Pali zinthu zambiri zomwe zimayambitsa kusalingana uku pakati pa magulu - kusiyana kwamaphunziro, kusiyana kwamabanja, kusiyana pakusankha ntchito.

Kumvetsetsa chifukwa chake tikuwona kusalinganika uku pakati pamagulu am'magulu a anthu ndi funso limodzi mwamafunso azikhalidwe. Ndipo: ichi ndi chinthu chomwe tiwunikenso bwino kwambiri m'magawo amtsogolo. Lero, komabe, talankhulapo mbali zisanu zakukhazikika pakati pa anthu ku United States: kusalingana kwa ndalama, kusalingana kwachuma, mphamvu zandale, kutchuka pantchito, ndi mulingo wamaphunziro.

Tinakambirana zankhani zosafanana ku United States komanso momwe zimasiyanirana ndi mtundu komanso jenda. Pomaliza, tinakambirana za gawo lomwe mungapeze pakupeza momwe mulili pachuma komanso chuma. Maphunzirowa a Sociology adachitikira ku Dr.

Cheryl C. Kinney Studio ku Missoula, MT, adajambula ndikujambula mothandizidwa ndi anthu okondeka onsewa. Gulu lathu lojambula ndi Thought Cafe ndipo Crash Course imapangidwa ndi Adobe Creative Cloud.

Ngati mukufuna kukhala ndi Crash Course kwa aliyense kwanthawizonse, mutha kuthandizira mndandanda ku Patreon, nsanja yolipirira anthu ambiri yomwe imakupatsani mwayi wothandizira zomwe mumakonda. Zikomo kwambiri kwa onse omwe atithandizira omwe adapangitsa Crash Course kukhala kotheka ndi chithandizo chawo chopitilira.

Kodi quintile ndi yotani?

KUquintilendi gawo limodzi mwa magawo asanu mwa mindandanda. M'magulu Omasulira Anthu,zotumphukiraatsimikiza ndiudindozigawo motsata mtengo. Pulogalamu yakusanja kwa quintilendizotengera peresenti ya ana 15-17, pomwe zipembedzo ndizomwe zili anthu onse.

Munkhaniyi, tiwona momwe ma percentile amawerengedwera mu SPSS. Kuti tiwerenge percentiles tikufuna kupita ku Analyse ndikupita ku Descriptive Statistics kenako ndikusankha Ma Frequency. Apa tikufuna kusuntha kusinthika kwathu kwa College GPA kupita kumalo osinthika, dinani batani lamanja, ndikusankha Statistics.

Ndipo zindikirani kuti pali gawo lotchedwa Percentile Values ​​ndipo timayamba ndikusankha magawo anayi. Chifukwa chake timadina, kenako ndikudina Next kenako OK. Tsopano apa ndi pomwe zenera lathu limatulukira ndipo mukuwona kuti tili ndi matebulo awiri, tili ndi ziwerengero, kenako pano tili ndi tebulo lotchedwa College GPA.

Ndipo tebulo ili limangotchula mafupipafupi a mtengo uliwonse wa GPA. Chifukwa chake zindikirani kuti tinali ndi pafupipafupi 1 pano, kotero panali GPA ya 2.13, GPA ya 2.31, ndi zina zambiri.

Koma tebulo loyambalo, Statistics, ndiye gome lomwe tikufuna kuyang'ana pano. Ndipo zindikirani kuti N ikuyenera pano pa 25 ndipo 0 ikusoweka. Izi zikuwonetsa kuti tinali ndi miyezo 25 yomwe inali yovomerezeka pakusintha ndi 0 yomwe idasowa.

Kubwerera ku kusintha kwathu, College GPA, zindikirani kuti tili ndi miyezo 25 pano ndipo palibe yomwe ikusowa, ndizomwe izi zikuwonetsa apa. Kenako tiyeni tiwone ma percentile athu pano. Tawonani kuti tanena zofunikira zitatu: 25, 50, ndi 75.

Tsopano 25 ikufanana ndi 25th percentile, yomwe imadziwikanso kuti kotala yoyamba. Mtengo uwu pano, 25th percentile, ukuwonetsa kuti 25% ya anthu anali ndi ma GPA omwe ali pansi pamtengo uwu. Chifukwa chake zindikirani kuti tikuwona GPA ya 2.805, kapena ngati titha kuti tipeze GPA ya 2.81.

Chifukwa chake 25th percentile, kapena quartile yoyamba, ikuwonetsa kuti pafupifupi 25% ya anthu anali ndi GPA yochepera 2.81. Chotsatira chathu chotsatira ndi 50th percentile.

Tsopano 50th percentile imadziwikanso kuti kotala yachiwiri. Ndipo izi zikuwonetsa kuti pali GPA ya 3.21, kotero 50% ya anthu anali ndi mfundo za GPA zosakwana 3.21 ndi 50% zazikulu kuposa 3.21.

Kotero zindikirani kuti 50th percentile kapena quartile yachiwiri imadula mikhalidwe ndendende, ndi 50% pansi pamtengo wa 3.21 ndi 50% pamwambapa. Tsopano tili ndi 75th percentile, yomwe imadziwikanso kuti kotala lachitatu.

Ndipo izi zikuwonetsa kuti ngati tingazungulire mpaka manambala awiri pambuyo pa decimal, pafupifupi 75% ya anthu anali ndi GPA yochepera 3.74. Ndipo izi zikuwonetsanso, tikayang'ana mbali inayo, kuti 25% ya anthu anali ndi ma GPA opitilira 3.74.

Ndipo 75th percentile imadziwikanso kuti kotala lachitatu. Ngati mungafune kudziwa, 50th percentile, yomwe timatchulanso kuti kotala yachiwiri, imafanananso ndi amkati, popeza apakatikati amachepetsa kugawa kwamitengo. Wapakatikati pazikhalidwe izi ndi 3.21.

Tiyeni tipitirire ndikupanga ma percenti angapo. Chifukwa chake tiyeni tibwerere ku Analyse, DescriptiveStatistics, ndi Frequency. Tiyeni dinani pa Statistics.

Ndipo apa ndikulepheretsa zokolola, tsopano tiyeni tiwone ma percentile. Ndipo apa nditha kulowa paliponse kuyambira 1 mpaka 99. Tiyeni tilowe mu 10th percentile, dinani Onjezani, kenako tilowanso 90th percentile, nafenso, ndikudina Add.

Koma kuti muwone kuti nditha kuyika mtundu uliwonse wazomwe ndimafuna. Chifukwa chake ngati ndimafuna 11th percentile mwachitsanzo, ndimangolemba 11 ndikudina Add, ndipo mumaziwona pamenepo. Koma sindikufuna izi, chifukwa chake ndizisankha ndikugunda Chotsani.

Chabwino, tili ndi 10th ndi 90th percentiles. Tipitiliza ndikudina Kenako. Ndipo ndiye ndilepheretsa njirayi apa, ndikuwonetsa matebulo afupipafupi, kenako sindimapeza tebulo ili kachiwiri chifukwa sindikulifuna kwenikweni.

Chifukwa chake ndikulepheretsa izi. Tiyeni tipite ndikudina OK. Ndiyeno apa tili ndi tebulo lathu lokhalo kachiwiri, ziwerengero.

Ndipo zindikirani kuti tsopano tili ndi ma percentile a 10 ndi 90. Chifukwa chake 10th percentile ikufanana ndi GPA ya 2.32 ndi kuzungulira.

Chifukwa chake zikutanthauza kuti pafupifupi anthu 10% pano anali ndi ma GPA ochepera 2.32, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti 90% ya anthu onse anali ndi ma GPA pafupifupi 2.32.

Pomaliza, 90th percentile imafanana ndi GPA yazungulira 3.86. Izi zikutanthauza kuti pafupifupi 90% ya anthu anali ndi GPA yochepera 3.86, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti pafupifupi 10% ya anthu anali ndi GPA yoposa 3.6.

Chabwino, ndizo zonse. Izi zikumaliza nkhaniyi momwe mungapangire ma percentiles mu SPSS. Zikomo powonera.

Kodi pali kusiyana kotani pakati pa quintile ndi quantile?

Pogwiritsidwa ntchito ngati maina,Zamgululiamatanthauza imodzi mwazikhalidwe zamitundu yosiyanitsa yomwe imagawa mamembala a gulu kapena zitsanzo m'magulu ang'onoang'ono ofanana amitundu yoyandikana kapena kugawira kuthekera kogawana mwayi wofanana, pomwequintileamatanthauza iliyonse yaZowonjezeraomwe amagawa gawo loyitanidwa ...

Zowonjezera ndi mfundo zomwe zimatengedwa pafupipafupi kuchokera pakubwezeretsanso kwa magawidwe omwe amagwiranso ntchito mosiyanasiyana mosiyanasiyana. Kugawidwa kwa data yolamulidwa kukhala zigawo zazing'ono zazikuluzikulu ndizomwe zimalimbikitsa ma quantiles; ma quantiles ndi ma data omwe amawonetsa malire pakati pama subsets otsatizana. Mwanjira ina, kuchuluka kwa kusinthasintha kosasintha ndi phindu lomwe kuthekera kwakuti kusinthasintha kosasintha kumakhala kocheperako kuposa kuthekera kwake ndipo kuthekera kwakuti kusinthasintha kosasintha ndikokulirapo kuposa komwe kuli.

Pali za -quantiles, imodzi pamanambala onse, the. Amakwaniritsa. Ma quantiles apadera Ma q-quantiles ena ali ndi mayina apadera: The 2-quantile amatchedwa apakatikati The 3-quantiles amatchedwa tertiles kapena terciles → T The 4-quantiles amatchedwa quartiles → QThe 5-quantiles amatchedwa quintiles → QU The 6-quantiles amatchedwa sextiles → SDie 10 -Quantiles amatchedwa deciles → D Ma 12-quantiles amatchedwa duo-deciles → Dd Ma 20-ma quantiles amatchedwa vigintiles → V Ma 100-quantiles amatchedwa ma permilles → P Ma 1000-ma quantiles amatchedwa ma permilles → Mwambiri, munthu amatha kulingalira za kuchuluka kwa magwiridwe antchito pakugawana kulikonse.

Izi zimatanthauzidwa pazosintha zenizeni pakati pa zero ndi imodzi ndipo masamu ndi kusiyanitsa kwa ntchito yogawa yowonjezera. Kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka kwa anthu Kwa anthu okhala ndi malingaliro osadziwika kapena kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka kwa anthu mosalekeza, kuchuluka kwake ndi kuchuluka kwa chidziwitso komwe ntchito yogawa yowonjezera imadutsa ndiye kuti, kuchuluka kwa kusinthasintha ifand. Kwa anthu ochepa omwe ali ndi zikhalidwe ndi index 1 kuchuluka kwa anthuwa kumatha kuwerengedwa pogwiritsa ntchito mtengo wa.

Ngati si nambala yonse, imazunguliridwa ndi nambala yonse yapafupi kuti ipeze index yoyenera. chiwerengero chofanana cha deta ndi th quantile. Kumbali inayi, kodi nambala yochuluka, nambala iliyonse kuchokera pamtengo womwe uli pamndandandawo kupita ku mtengo wotsatirawo ingagwiritsidwe ntchito ngati quantile, ndipo sizachilendo kutenga mfundo ziwirizi.

Ngati '-quantile' idakhazikitsidwa ndi nambala yeniyeni m'malo mwa manambala athunthu, imasinthidwa m'mawonekedwe pamwambapa. Mapulogalamu ena amalingaliro ochepera komanso okwanira ngati 0 ndi 100th percentiles, motsatana; Komabe, mawuwa ndikutanthauzira matanthauzidwe wamba. Zitsanzo Zitsanzo ziwiri zotsatirazi zikugwiritsa ntchito tanthauzo la NearestRank la quantile, kuzungulira, onani tanthauzo la Percentiles.

Ngakhale kuchuluka kwa anthu Ganizirani kuchuluka kwa madongosolo 10 a data {3, 6, 7, 8, 8, 10, 13, 15, 16, 20} Mulingo wa kotala yoyamba ndi 10 × (1/4) = 2.5, yomwe imazungulira mpaka 3, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti 3 ndiye kuchuluka kwa anthu komwe pafupifupi 1/4 mwazikhalidwezo ndizochepera kuposa mtengo woyambira woyamba. Mtengo wachitatu mwa anthu ndi 7.

Mulingo wa kotala yachiwiri ndi 10 × (2/4) = 5, yomwe ndi nambala yonse, pomwe kuchuluka kwake ndi nambala yofananira, chifukwa chake mtengo wachisanu ndi wachisanu ndi chimodzi ukutengedwa - ndiko kuti / 2 = 9, ngakhale phindu lililonse kuyambira 8 mpaka 10 likhoza kutengedwa ngati wapakatikati. Mulingo wa kotala yachitatu ndi 10 × (3/4) = 7.5, yomwe imatha kufika 8.

Chiwerengero chachisanu ndi chitatu cha anthu ndi 15. Chiwerengero cha Anthu Osalingalira Ganizirani za chiwerengero cha anthu chomwe chalamulidwa magawo 11 a data {3, 6, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 20}. Quartile yoyamba imatsimikiziridwa ndi 11 × (1/4) = 2.75, yomwe imazungulira mpaka 3, kutanthauza kuti 3 ndiye kuchuluka kwa anthu komwe pafupifupi 1/4 mwazikhalidwezo ndizochepera mtengo wa Quartile yoyamba.

Chiwerengero chachitatu cha anthu ndi 7. Mtengo wachiwiri wa quartile umatsimikiziridwa ndi 11 × (2/4) = 5.5, yomwe imatha kufika 6.

Chifukwa chake, 6 ndiye kuchuluka kwa anthu komwe pafupifupi 2/4 yazikhalidwezo ndizochepera mtengo wa quartile yachiwiri. Mtengo wachisanu ndi chimodzi mwa anthu ndi 9. Mtengo wachitatu wa quartile pachitsanzo choyambirira pamwambapa chimatsimikiziridwa ndi 11 × (3/4) = 8.25, yomwe imazungulira mpaka 9.

Mtengo wachisanu ndi chinayi mwa anthu ndi 15. Zokambirana Zoyesedwa zoyesedwa nthawi zambiri zimamasuliridwa molakwika ngati wophunzira yemwe akuyesa 'mu 80th percentile', mwachitsanzo, ngati kuti 80th percentile ndi nthawi yoyeserera 'mu' chomwe sichiri; mutha kugunda 'pa' percentile kapena pakati pa awiri percentiles, koma osati 'mu' percentile. Mwina chitsanzo ichi chikutanthauza kuti wophunzira amapeza pakati pa 80th ndi 81st percentile kapena 'mu' gulu la ophunzira omwe ambiri amawaika mu 80th percentile.

Pankhani yogawa kofananira, wapakatikati ndiye kutanthauza. Koma ambiri apakatikati ndi matanthauzidwe ndi osiyana. Mwachitsanzo, ngati zingasinthidwe mwachisawawa ndikugawana kowonekera, mtundu wina wazosintha izi uli ndi mwayi pafupifupi 63% wokhala pansi pamtengo wofunikira.

Izi ndichifukwa choti kufalitsa kwakukulu kuli ndi mchira wautali wazikhalidwe zabwino koma ndi zero kwa manambala olakwika. Ma Quantiles ndi njira zothandiza chifukwa samakonda kugawa ndi zogulitsa zazitali kuposa zotsika mtengo. Mwaukadaulo, ma quantiles amatha kukhala owerengera othandiza kwambiri kuposa njira ndi ziwerengero zina zakanthawi pomwe zosanthula sizinagawidwe kwenikweni malinga ndi magawidwe omwe akuganiza kapena magwero ena azinthu zomwe zilipo zomwe zili kutali kwambiri ndi tanthauzo.

Choyenerana kwambiri ndi izi ndi vuto la Kupatuka Kosavuta Kwambiri, njira yobwezeretsa yomwe imakhala yolimba kwambiri kwa ogulitsa kuposa Malo Osewerera, yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito kuchuluka kwa zolakwika zomwe zachitika m'malo mwa zolakwika za quadratic. Kulumikizana ndikuti tanthauzo ndiye kuyerekezera kumodzi kogawa komwe kumachepetsa zolakwika zomwe zikuyembekezeredwa pomwe munthu wapakatikati amachepetsa zolakwika zonse zomwe zikuyembekezeredwa. Zomwe zimasinthidwa mosasinthika zimasungidwa ndikusintha kwakukula, mwachitsanzo, ngati wapakatikati pakusintha kosasintha, ndiye kuti ndi wamankhwala, kupatula ngati kusankha kopanda tanthauzo kwapangidwa kuchokera kuzinthu zingapo kuti zisonyeze mtengo wapadera quantiile.

Zowonjezera zitha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito ngati kuli ma data a ordinal okha. Kuyerekeza kuchuluka kwa anthu Pali njira zosiyanasiyana zowerengera kuchuluka kwake. Njira zambiri zopezeka mu zilankhulo za R ndi GNU Octave, zomwe zimaphatikizapo njira zisanu ndi zinayi za quantile.

SAS ili ndi njira zisanu zochulukirapo, SciPy eyiti, STATA awiri ndi Microsoft Excel imodzi. M'malo mwake, njirazi zimawerengera Qp, kuyerekezera kwa kth q quantile, pomwe p = k / q, kuchokera pachitsanzo cha kukula N powerengera mtengo wokwanira h. Ngati h ndi nambala, h-yaying'ono kwambiri ya N values, xh, ndi chiwerengero cha quantile.

Kupanda kutero, chiwembu chomaliza kapena chophatikizira chimagwiritsidwa ntchito kuwerengera kuyerekezera kwa quantile kuchokera ku h, x⌊h⌋, ndi x⌈h⌉. Mitundu yowerengera ikuphatikiza: Dziwani kuti R-3 ndi R-4 sadzipereka h = (N + 1). / 2 ngati p = 1/2.

Cholakwika chofananira cha kuyerekezera kwa quantile nthawi zambiri chitha kuyerekezedwa kugwiritsa ntchito bootstrap. Njira ya Maritz-Jarrett itha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito. OnaninsoFlashsort - Kusanja koyamba ndi ndowa yoyamba ndi ziwerengero zowerengera za Quartile Q-QKugwira ntchito kwa Quantile kukhazikikaKukonzanso kwa Quantile Mwachidule ZiwerengeroKuwerenga zambiri R.

J. Serfdom. Malingaliro oyandikira a masamu.

John Wiley & Sons, 1980. Maulalo AkunjaKukhazikitsa kwa MATLAB kwa njira zosiyanasiyana zowerengera

Kodi quintile wotsikitsitsa ndi chiyani?

Kuyeza Kugawa Kwa Ndalama ndi Quintiles

Quintile yoyambandiye wotsikitsitsa kwambiri wachisanu kapena 20%, quintile yachiwiri ndi yotsika kwambiri, ndi zina zotero. Kusalinganika kwa ndalama kumatha kuyerekezedwa pofanizira gawo lomwe ndalama zonse zimapeza ndi quintile iliyonse.

Kodi mtengo wa quintile ndi chiyani?

KUquintilendi gawo limodzi mwa magawo asanu mwa mindandanda. M'magulu Omasulira Anthu,zotumphukiraamatsimikiziridwa ndi zigawo zam'magulu molingana ndimlingo. Poterepa, fayilo yamitengokudera lililonse amapatsidwa gawo lotsika kwambirimitengoali oyambaquintilendipamwamba kwambirimitengoali mu 5quintile.

Kodi quantile amawerengedwa bwanji?

Mu ziwerengero ndi kuthekera,Zowonjezerandi malo odulidwa omwe amagawa kuchuluka kwa kugawa kwakanthawi kosiyanasiyana ndi kuthekera kofananira, kapena kugawa zomwe awonazo muchitsanzo chimodzimodzi. Pali ochepaZamgululikuposa kuchuluka kwa magulu omwe adapangidwa.

Kodi 1 ndi chiyani?

Pulogalamu yakotala yoyamba, wotchulidwa ndi Q1, ndiye wapakatikati wa theka lakumapeto kwa deta. Izi zikutanthauza kuti pafupifupi 25% ya manambala omwe adasungidwa ali pansipa Q1ndipo pafupifupi 75% ili pamwamba pa Q1. Chachitatukotala, wotchulidwa ndi Q3, ndiye wapakatikati wa theka lapamwamba lazosungidwa.26. 2010.

Kodi quintile rank ndi chiyani?

KUquintilendi gawo limodzi mwa magawo asanu mwa mindandanda. M'magulu Omasulira Anthu,zotumphukiraatsimikiza ndiudindozigawo motsata mtengo. Pulogalamu yakusanja kwa quintilendizotengera peresenti ya ana 15-17, pomwe zipembedzo ndizomwe zili anthu onse.

Kodi quintile yapamwamba kwambiri ya ndalama ndi iti?

Hafu imodzi, 49.98%, ya onsendalamaku US kunapezedwa ndi mabanja okhala ndindalamazoposa $ 100,000, thepamwambamakumi awiri pa zana. Opitilira kotala limodzi, 28.5%, onsendalamaadalandira ndipamwamba8%, mabanja omwe amalandila ndalama zoposa $ 150,000 pachaka. Pulogalamu yapamwamba3.65%, ndindalamaopitilira $ 200,000, adalandira 17.5%.

Kodi mapikidwe abwino ndi otani?

Kuti muphunzire bwino ndikukula, wophunzira ayenera kuchita masamu mkati mwaZambiriosiyanasiyana 50Q pamwambapa 50Q pansipaMuyeso Quantile.